Low Countries


Prince-Bishopric of Liege:        
Awans P0242b P0457c      
Borgloon P0373c        
Corswarem P0334        
Fooz P0471        
Genoelselderen P0587        
Gotem P0373b        
Guigoven P0338        
Heers P0373d        
Herenelderen P0303        
Hermalle-sous-Huy P0457d        
Herten P0322        
Huy A0029 A0033      
Liege P0373a P0483 A0007 A0020  
Neuville-sous-Huy P0421        
Thys P0371 P0462      
Vireux-Molhain P0423 P0457 P0459    
Warnant P0372        
Bishopric of Utrecht:  
Ijsselstein P0376    
Linschoten P0675    
Utrecht P0053    
Duchy of Brabant:  
Breda P0139 P0381  
Bruxelles P0185 P0581  
County of Cleves:  
Kleve P0043 P0579  
County of Hainault:  
Moulbaix P0403    


County of Namur:  
Forville P0426    
County of Flanders:      
Brugge P0394 P0415 A0071 A0207  
Gent P0365 P0533 A0085    
Koolskamp P0104 P0106b      
Kortrijk A0311        
Duchy of Luxemburg:          
Vielsalm P0657          
Villers-devant-Orval P0457b          
From other regions:      
France Louviers A0032    

P0660, 1325?


P0657, 1340?

P0365, 1325

P0579, 1330?
A0020, 1340?

A0207, 1340?

P0334, 1338
A0033, 1340?
A0032, 1340?

P0403a, 1346

P0462, 1350?

P0371, 1350?

P0303, 1354

P0581, 1355?
A0311, 1370?

P0533, 1360

P0053, 1360?

P0185, 1362

P0376, 1363?

P0415, 1370?


P0139, 1378

P0675, 1380?

P0104, 1380

P0426, 1381

P0394, 1382

P0421, 1393

P0043, 1394

P0381, 1394

A0071, 1400?

A0029, 1406

A0007, 1410?

A0085, 1425?


P0471, 1407

P0483a, 1413

P0241, 1400

P0459a, 1404

P0423, 1425

P0587, 1428

P0631, 1432

P0106b, 1431


Upon the death of Louis of Male, count of Flanders, in 1384, the Low Countries began their unification within the Burgundian Netherlands
здесь мы видим выделение территории Low Countries, на которую сильное влияние оказывали counts of Flanders

Historically, the term Low Countries arose at the Court of the Dukes of Burgundy, who used the term les pays de par deca (~ the lands over here) for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par dela (~ the lands over there) for the Duchy of Burgundy and the Free County of Burgundy, which were part of their realm but geographically disconnected from the Low Countries
The region politically had its origins in Carolingian empire; more precisely, most of it was within the Duchy of Lower Lotharingia. After the disintegration of Lower Lotharingia, the Low Countries were brought under the rule of various lordships until they came to be in the hands of the Valois Dukes of Burgundy
After the death of Charlemagne, Francia was divided in three parts among his three grandsons. The middle slice, Middle Francia, was ruled by Lothair I, and thereby also came to be referred to as "Lotharingia" or "Lorraine". Apart from the original coastal County of Flanders, which was within West Francia, the rest of the Low Countries were within the lowland part of this, "Lower Lorraine"
здесь мы видим выделение области Lower Lorraine (Нижней Лотарингии), отдельной от County of Flanders, вошедшей в состав West Francia

After the death of Lothair, the Low Countries were coveted by the rulers of both West Francia and East Francia. Each tried to swallow the region and to merge it with their spheres of influence. Thus, the Low Countries consisted of fiefs whose sovereignty resided with either the Kingdom of France (987–1498) or the Holy Roman Empire. While the further history the Low Countries can be seen as the object of a continual struggle between these two powers, the title of Duke of Lothier was coveted in the low countries for centuries
Gradually, separate fiefs came to be ruled by a single family through royal intermarriage. This process culminated in the rule of the House of Valois, who were the rulers of the Duchy of Burgundy. In 1477 the Burgundian holdings in the area, the Burgundian Netherlands passed through an heiress—Mary of Burgundy—to the Habsburgs

In 959 King Henry's son Duke Bruno the Great divided Lotharingia into two duchies: Lower and Upper Lorraine (or Lower and Upper Lotharingia) and granted Count Godfrey I of Mons (Hainaut) the title of a Duke of Lower Lorraine. Godfrey's lands were to the north (lower down the Rhine river system), while Upper Lorraine was to the south (further up the river system)
здесь мы видим формальное образование Lower Lorraine - к северу в нижней части течения реки Рейн

Both Lotharingian duchies took very separate paths thereafter:
Upon the death of Duke Godfrey III in 1190, his son Duke Henry I of Brabant inherited the ducal title by order of Emperor Henry VI at the Diet of Schwabisch Hall. Thereby the Duchy of Lower Lorraine finally lost its territorial authority, while the remnant Imperial fief held by the Dukes of Brabant was later called the Duchy of Lothier (or Lothryk)
Lower Lorraine — also referred to as Lothier — disintegrated into several smaller independent territories and only the title of a "Duke of Lothier" remained, held by Brabant
здесь область Lower Lorraine прекратила свое самостоятельное существование и распалась не несколько отдельных территорий

Successor states
After the territorial power of the duchy was shattered, many fiefdoms came to independence in its area. The most important ones of these were:
Archbishopric of Cologne
Prince-Bishopric of Liege
Bishopric of Utrecht
Bishopric of Cambrai
Duchy of Limburg
County of Guelders (includes also the shire Teisterbant)
Margravate of Ename, later called Imperial Flanders or the County of Aalst
County of Julich
County of Namur
County of Cleves
County of Hainault, including the Margravate of Valenciennes and the County of Bergen
County of Holland
County of Berg
County of Loon
County of Horne

The following successor states remained under the authority of the titular dukes of Lower Lorraine (Lothier):
Margraviate of Antwerp
County of Leuven and Brussels
Duchy of Brabant

Lothier refers to the territory within the Duchy of Lower Lotharingia, governed by the Dukes of Brabant and their successors after 1190 until the end of the Ancien Regime in 1796
Lothier should not be confused with the far greater Lower Lotharingia

Duchy of Luxemburg не включен в Low Countries, потому что исторически он отделился от Lower Lotharingia и имеющиеся в моей коллекции памятники на территории Duchy of Luxemburg (P0032 и P0033, оба из Kyllburg) изображают костюмы более близкие к немецким

Originally a feudal county itself, Artois was annexed by the county of Flanders. It came to France in 1180 as a dowry of a Flemish princess, Isabelle of Hainaut, and was again made a separate county in 1237 for Robert, a grandson of Isabelle. Through inheritance, Artois came under the rule of the dukes of Burgundy in 1384
таким образом, County of Artois также можно отнести к Low Countries

The Tournaisis (or Tournai and the Tournaisis) was a small territory in the Low Countries independent during the Middle Ages, consisting of the city of Tournai (Dutch: Doornik) and the surrounding area. The Tournaisis was situated between two larger neighbours: the County of Flanders, and the County of Hainaut

Таким образом, первоначальная область Low Countries (геофизические низины нижнего течения Рейна) сначала потеряла Flanders, затем выделилась Lower Lorraine, которая в дальнейшем распалась на несколько самостоятельных политических единиц. Границы и отношения с главными соседями (Священная Римская империя и Королевство Франция) постоянно менялись, но эта область всегда противопоставляла себя главным соседям. Но самое главное, что общность этих территорий, определенная их геофизическим положением, сохранилась. Самое большое количество памятников сохранилось на территории Prince-Bishopric of Liege, и лишь единицы - на территории других политических единиц региона. Но так как изображенные костюмы проявляют определенное сходство, а четкие политические границы постоянно менялись и выделить их очень сложно, я решил выделить такой большой регион как Low Countries

Limassol P0682b              
Nicosia P0542a,b,c,d P0555a,b P0565 P0599 P0643a,b,c,d P0682a    

P0682, A,B-1337

P0565, 1343

P0599, 1352