After about 500 AD, England comprised seven Anglo-Saxon territories
– Northumbria, Mercia, East Anglia, Essex, Kent, Sussex and Wessex –
often referred to as the heptarchy. The boundaries of some of these,
which later unified as the Kingdom of England, roughly coincide with
those of modern regions. During Oliver Cromwell's Protectorate in the
1650s, the rule of the Major-Generals created 10 regions in England
and Wales of similar size to the modern region
The Heptarchy (from the Greek ἑπτά hepta, "seven" and ἄρχω
arkho, "to rule") is a collective name applied to the Anglo-Saxon
kingdoms of south, east and central England during late antiquity and
the early Middle Ages, conventionally identified as seven: East Anglia,
Essex, Kent, Mercia, Northumbria, Sussex and Wessex. The Anglo-Saxon
kingdoms eventually unified into the Kingdom of England.
A map of the kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy
Bartholomew, J. G. (John George), 1860-1920
A literary & historical atlas of Europe (1914)
Northumbria + Strathclyde (Cumbria, Northumberland, Durham, Humberside, North Yorkshire, West Yorkshire, South Yorkshire):
Mercia (Lindsey) (Lincolnshire):
The Kingdom of Lindsey or Linnuis (Old English: Lindesege) was a lesser Anglo-Saxon kingdom, which was absorbed into Northumbria in the 7th century.
Lindsey lay between the Humber estuary and the Wash, forming its inland boundaries from the courses of the Witham and Trent rivers, and the Foss Dyke between them. A marshy region south of the Humber known as the Isle of Axholme was also included.
All trace of Lindsey's separate status had vanished before the Viking assault in the late ninth century. Its territories were absorbed into the historical English county of Lincolnshire, the northern part of which is called Lindsey.
Hwicce was a tribal kingdom in Anglo-Saxon England. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, the kingdom was established in 577, after the Battle of Deorham. After 628, the kingdom became a client or sub-kingdom of Mercia as a result of the Battle of Cirencester.
The Tribal Hidage assessed Hwicce at 7000 hides, which would give it a similar sized economy to the kingdoms of Essex and Sussex.
The exact boundaries of the kingdom remain uncertain, though it is likely that they coincided with those of the old Diocese of Worcester, founded in 679–80, the early bishops of which bore the title Episcopus Hwicciorum. The kingdom would therefore have included Worcestershire except the northwestern tip, Gloucestershire except the Forest of Dean, the southwestern half of Warwickshire, the neighbourhood of Bath north of the Avon, plus small parts of Herefordshire, Shropshire, Staffordshire and north-west Wiltshire.
... The territory of the Hwicce may roughly have corresponded to the Roman civitas of the Dobunni.
Mercia (West Angles - Kingdoms of Magonsaete, Wreocensæte, Pecsaetan) (Glouchestershire, Herefordshire, Shropshire, Cheshire, Derbyshire):
Magonsæte was a minor sub-kingdom of the greater Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Mercia, thought to be coterminous with the Diocese of Hereford.
The British territory of Pengwern was conquered by Oswiu of Northumbria in 656, while he was overlord of the Mercians. Western Pengwern was then occupied by Anglian groups. One group based itself at the old Roman town of Magnae or (Old Welsh) Cair Magon, modern Kenchester near Hereford.
The sub-kingdom of the Western Hecani existed in the late 7th and early 8th centuries, of which three rulers are known: Merewalh, Mildfrith, and Merchelm. By the later 8th century, the region would seem to have been reincorporated into Mercia, perhaps as Westerna, becoming known as the Magonsæte by the 9th century.
Although the Anglo‐Saxon kingdom which was conterminous with the diocese of Hereford is usually referred to as the kingdom of the Magonsaete, the name is not recorded until the 9th cent. The people of the province may originally have been known as the West Angles.
The Wreocensæte (Old English: Wrēocensǣte, Wrōcensǣte, Wrōcesǣte, and probably Wōcensǣte), sometimes anglicized as the Wrekinsets, were one of the peoples of Anglo-Saxon Britain. Their name approximates to "Wrekin-dwellers". It is also suggested that Wrexham also derived from Wreocensæte.
The Pecsætan (Old English: Pēcsǣtan; singular Pēcsǣta, literally "Peak-dweller"), also called Peaklanders or Peakrills in modern English, were an Anglo Saxon tribe who inhabited the central and northern parts of the Peak District area in England. The area was historically the home of the southern clan of the Brigantes, a Brythonic tribe, before the Anglo-Saxon invasion. The very early Derbyshire settlements, in what is now known as the Peak District, were those of the West Angles. This tribe advanced up the valleys of the rivers Derwent and Dove during their northern conquests in the 6th century. They became known locally as the Pecsætan. Later their territory formed the northern division of Mercia, and in 848 the Mercian Witenagemot assembled at Repton.
Mercia (Outer Mercia, South Mercians, North Mercians) (Northhamptonshire, Leichestershire, Staffordshire, Nottinghamshire, West Midlands, Derbyshire):
на карте видно, что характерным рельефом этой территории являются предгорья
The Middle Angles were an important ethnic or cultural group within the larger kingdom of Mercia in England in the Anglo-Saxon period.
It is likely that Angles broke into the Midlands from East Anglia and the Wash early in the 6th century. Those who established their control first came to be called Middil Engli (Middle Angles). Their territory was centred in modern Leicestershire and East Staffordshire, but probably extended as far as the Cambridgeshire uplands and the Chilterns. This gave them a strategically important place within both Mercia and England as a whole, dominating both the great land routes of Watling Street and Fosse Way, and the major river route of the River Trent, together with its tributaries, the Tame and Soar.
The Middle Angles were incorporated into the wider kingdom of Mercia, apparently well before the reign of Penda (c.626-655)
Angles (Suffolk, Norfolk):
Wessex (East Saxons) (Essex, Hertfordshire):
находящийся на границе Drayton Beauchamp не включен в регион, так как относится к другому графству
Minster on Sea
Wessex (Dumnonia) (Devon, Cornwall, Somerset) + West Wales:
Выделен в отдельный регион, так как соответствует территории бывшего Королевства Думнония. Пределы королевства охватывали территорию современных графств Девон, Корнуолл и часть Сомерсета.
Западную часть территории Думнонии населяли корновии (лат. Cornovii). Считается, что это было не самостоятельное племя, а часть думнониев. К наименованию этого племени восходят западная часть названия полуострова Корнуолл и название корнцев — этнотерриториальной группы, ныне населяющей графство Корнуолл
... its eastern boundary changing over time as the gradual westward expansion of the neighbouring Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Wessex encroached on its territory
(Link) на этих картах занимает Девон, весь Сомерсет и часть Эйвона, не занятую королевством Hwicce
(Link) близлежащие королевства Cornwall, Glastening (Somerset) и Dortrig (Dorset) были союзниками Думнонии в борьбе против Wessex
(Link) Glastening (Somerset) прежде был территорией, принадлежавшей Думнонии
(Link) на этой карте Dortrig (Dorset) входит в состав Думнонии
the Dumnonian leaders would have exercised a far higher level of self-rule than many areas of Britain. They controlled a wide swathe of territory that also comprised the former territory of the Durotriges and Cornovii, in the modern counties of Dorset and Cornwall respectively.
As well as producing one of the earliest independent kingdoms, Dumnonia was one of the most stable until the West Saxon territorial gains of the late sixth century, neither changing its name or fragmenting in the way of most Celtic kingdoms. It produced a few sub-kingdoms, Glastenning, Cornubia and Lyonesse, which were ruled, in the same manner as Gwynedd, under Dumnonia's overall control, and were mostly later drawn back under direct rule. Glastenning was the only one not regained in whole, but this was due to Saxon conquests in the region.
таким образом, в этот регион, противопоставляемый Wessex, включены все 4 графства (Devon, Cornwall, Glastening (Somerset) и Dortrig (Dorset)) и часть графства Avon
всю территорию Уэльса можно разделить на независимый Уэльс (Pura Wallia) и приграничный Уэльс (Welsh Marches, Marchia Wallie - lands ruled by the Marcher barons), неточно определенная область вдоль и вокруг границы между Англией и Уэльсом
Hundreds of small castles were built in the border area in the 12th and 13th centuries, predominantly by Norman lords
The Marcher lords encouraged immigration from all the Norman-Angevin realms
Peasants came to Wales in large numbers: Henry I encouraged Bretons, Flemings, Normans, and English settlers to move into the south of Wales
The Norman lords each had similar rights to the Welsh princes
независимое положение Earldom of Chester (county palatinate) и культурной близостью к Уэльсу объясняется тем, что до 602 года эта область входила в состав владений Gwynedd
In a rare show of common interest it appears Gwynedd and neighbouring Powys acted in concert to rebuff the Anglican advance but were defeated at the Battle of Chester in 613. Following this catastrophe the approximate borders of northern Wales were set with the city of Caerlleon (now called Chester) and the surrounding Cheshire Plain falling under the control of the Anglo-Saxons
In early times Gwynedd (or Venedotia) may have been ruled from Chester. After the Battle of Chester in 613 when the city fell to the Anglo-Saxons
The strategic location of the Earldom of Chester; the only county palatine on the Welsh Marches
Because of the historically close links with the land bordering Cheshire to the west, which became modern Wales, there is a history of interaction between Cheshire and North Wales
The native inhabitants of medieval Wales were descended from the Celtic Britons, whom the Anglo-Saxons had driven out of the island's fertile midlands (the term "Welsh" was the Anglo-Saxon word for "foreigner"). In the 8th century the Anglo-Saxons established the traditional Anglo-Welsh border by erecting King Offa's Dyke, an earthwork barrier running from the coast near to Prestatyn in the north to the Bristol Channel in the south. While Offa's Dyke marked the end of Anglo-Saxon annexation of Welsh territory, the status quo was shattered in the 11th century by the arrival of the Normans, who conquered a border zone in Wales known as the Marches (from a French word meaning "frontier"). Norman warlords known as Marcher lords oversaw the conquered lands and prevented incursions by outsiders. Over time, a hybrid society developed in this frontier area as Welsh, Anglo-Saxon and Norman peoples and cultures mixed together. Until Edward's invasion in 1277, the country remained divided between Marcher Wales and native Wales.
очень близок к уэльским костюмам P0331, 1342 (Farndon, Cheshire)
это объясняется пограничным расположением этой деревни
It is located on the banks of the River Dee, south of Chester, and close to the border with Wales
Up to the 14th century, Farndon also included the chapelry of Holt in Denbighshire, Wales
Farndon is very close to the border between England and Wales (the actual border is on the bridge which crosses the river Dee and which separates Farndon and the village of Holt.) Consequently, Farndon has a Welsh name: Rhedynfre. The village was an important place historically and has been a site of conflict and cultural exchange since the Angles settled the area in the 8th century. The border moved numerous times during the following centuries, placing Farndon alternately in Wales and England.
поэтому этот памятник можно отнести к региону Уэльс
Scotland & Ireland:
Датировка памятников Ирландии большей частью предположительная, выведенная из аналогии (композиция фигуры, изображенный костюм, детали) с английскими и больше с континентальными памятниками - север Европы и Галисия.
Доказательства того, что указанная на памятниках более поздняя датировка была нанесена при использовании старых скульптурных надгробий при строительстве новых памятников:
- надписи часто не умещаются и нанесены кусками
- в надписи указано, что художник (которому современные источники приписывают изготовление памятников) оставлял подпись "SCRIPSIT" ("написал", а не изваял-создал)
- на некоторых памятниках видно, что плита с фигурой отдельна от общего памятника и надписи (см. P0614b-камни с надписью обкладывают отдельную плиту с фигурой)