Kingdom of England (Heptarchy)
Главная
Локации
 
 

(Link)
After about 500 AD, England comprised seven Anglo-Saxon territories – Northumbria, Mercia, East Anglia, Essex, Kent, Sussex and Wessex – often referred to as the heptarchy. The boundaries of some of these, which later unified as the Kingdom of England, roughly coincide with those of modern regions. During Oliver Cromwell's Protectorate in the 1650s, the rule of the Major-Generals created 10 regions in England and Wales of similar size to the modern region

(Link)
The Heptarchy (from the Greek ἑπτά hepta, "seven" and ἄρχω arkho, "to rule") is a collective name applied to the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of south, east and central England during late antiquity and the early Middle Ages, conventionally identified as seven: East Anglia, Essex, Kent, Mercia, Northumbria, Sussex and Wessex. The Anglo-Saxon kingdoms eventually unified into the Kingdom of England.

(Link)
A map of the kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy
Bartholomew, J. G. (John George), 1860-1920
A literary & historical atlas of Europe (1914)
(Link)

 
Northumbria + Strathclyde ((Northumberland, Durham, Humberside, North Yorkshire, West Yorkshire, South Yorkshire):
Aldborough P0318      
Bamburgh P0407      
Barnburgh P0307      
Bishop Auckland P0665      
Brandesburton P0449      
Bedale P0213 P0337    
Carlisle P0628      
Catterick P0580      
Hornby P0428      
Kildwick P0212      
Kirkby Stephen P0482      
Methley P0687      
Pickering P0034 P0404    
Ripley P0235      
Ripon P0116      
Ryther P0152      
Sheriff Hutton P0209      
Staindrop P0229      
Sutton-on-Hull P0211      
Swine P0081 P0082 P0083  
Walton P0500      
Warkworth P0261      
West Tanfield P0117      
         

P0152, 1327

P0665, 1330
?

P0212, 1330

P0209, 1344

P0261, 1345

P0213, 1348

P0034, 1342

P0307, 1345

P0211, 1351

P0407, 1357?

P0318, 1360

P0081,
1363

P0235, 1369

P0500, 1386?

P0117, 1387

P0082,
1393

P0337, 1394

P0116, 1398

P0449, 1397

P0083, 1400

P0580, 1403

P0404, 1407

P0428, 1412

P0482, 1409?

P0628, 1420?

P0687, 1425

P0229, 1425
 
 
Mercia (Lindsey) (Lincolnshire):

(Link)
The Kingdom of Lindsey or Linnuis (Old English: Lindesege) was a lesser Anglo-Saxon kingdom, which was absorbed into Northumbria in the 7th century.
Lindsey lay between the Humber estuary and the Wash, forming its inland boundaries from the courses of the Witham and Trent rivers, and the Foss Dyke between them. A marshy region south of the Humber known as the Isle of Axholme was also included.
All trace of Lindsey's separate status had vanished before the Viking assault in the late ninth century. Its territories were absorbed into the historical English county of Lincolnshire, the northern part of which is called Lindsey.

Buslingthorpe P0035    
Caistor P0503    
Halton Holegate P0077    
Kirkby P0476    
Laughton P0584    
Lea P0564    
Redbourne P0638    
Spilsby P0193 P0251 P0252
       

P0077, 1324

P0035, 1340

P0564, 1342

P0193, 1349

P0251, 1372

P0503, 1380?

P0252, 1396

P0476, 1398

P0584, 1405?

P0638, 1410
   
 
Mercia (Hwicce) (Glouchestershire, Worcestershire, Warwickshire):

(Link)
Hwicce was a tribal kingdom in Anglo-Saxon England. According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, the kingdom was established in 577, after the Battle of Deorham. After 628, the kingdom became a client or sub-kingdom of Mercia as a result of the Battle of Cirencester.
The Tribal Hidage assessed Hwicce at 7000 hides, which would give it a similar sized economy to the kingdoms of Essex and Sussex.
The exact boundaries of the kingdom remain uncertain, though it is likely that they coincided with those of the old Diocese of Worcester, founded in 679–80, the early bishops of which bore the title Episcopus Hwicciorum. The kingdom would therefore have included Worcestershire except the northwestern tip, Gloucestershire except the Forest of Dean, the southwestern half of Warwickshire, the neighbourhood of Bath north of the Avon, plus small parts of Herefordshire, Shropshire, Staffordshire and north-west Wiltshire.
... The territory of the Hwicce may roughly have corresponded to the Roman civitas of the Dobunni.

Alvechurch P0030        
Berkeley P0019        
Birtsmorton P0691        
Bristol P0018        
Coberley P0210        
Gloucester P0282        
Leckhampton P0070        
Longborough P0586        
Lower Quinton P0566        
Minchinhampton P0339        
Northmoor P0208        
North Leigh P0192        
Shipton Moyne P0491        
Tewkesbury P0051 P0215 P0237 P0258 P0679
Upper Arley P0236        
Warwick P0015        
Winterbourne P0204 P0205 P0206    
Worcester P0014        
Wotton-under-Edge P0538        
           

P0236, 1325

P0070, 1329

P0339, 1335

P0210, 1340?

P0681, 1340?

P0679, 1340?

P0491, 1342

P0586, 1345?

P0237, 1346

P0051, 1348

P0030, 1355

P0206, 1356

P0208, 1357

P0204, 1360

P0019, 1361

P0018, 1368

P0215, 1369?

P0015, 1370

P0205, 1373

P0566, 1375?

P0258, 1375

P0691, 1385?

P0014, 1388

P0538, 1392

P0282, 1408

P0192, 1412
 
Mercia (West Angles - Kingdoms of Magonsaete, Wreocensæte, Pecsaetan) (Glouchestershire, Herefordshire, Shropshire, Cheshire, Derbyshire):
Magonsaete    
Clehonger P0130    
Hereford P0071 P0131  
Much Marcle P0227    
Moccas P0066    
Newent P0273    
Stretford P0529 P0632  
       

(Link)
Magonsæte was a minor sub-kingdom of the greater Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Mercia, thought to be coterminous with the Diocese of Hereford. The British territory of Pengwern was conquered by Oswiu of Northumbria in 656, while he was overlord of the Mercians. Western Pengwern was then occupied by Anglian groups. One group based itself at the old Roman town of Magnae or (Old Welsh) Cair Magon, modern Kenchester near Hereford. The sub-kingdom of the Western Hecani existed in the late 7th and early 8th centuries, of which three rulers are known: Merewalh, Mildfrith, and Merchelm. By the later 8th century, the region would seem to have been reincorporated into Mercia, perhaps as Westerna, becoming known as the Magonsæte by the 9th century.

(Link)
Although the Anglo‐Saxon kingdom which was conterminous with the diocese of Hereford is usually referred to as the kingdom of the Magonsaete, the name is not recorded until the 9th cent. The people of the province may originally have been known as the West Angles.

Wreocensæte    
Acton P0479    
Acton Burnell P0541    
Bunbury P0038    
Over Peover P0287    
Shrewsbury P0612    
Tong P0267    
       

(Link)
The Wreocensæte (Old English: Wrēocensǣte, Wrōcensǣte, Wrōcesǣte, and probably Wōcensǣte), sometimes anglicized as the Wrekinsets, were one of the peoples of Anglo-Saxon Britain. Their name approximates to "Wrekin-dwellers". It is also suggested that Wrexham also derived from Wreocensæte.

Pecsaetan    
Bakewell P0281    
Tideswell P0446    
       

(Link)
The Pecsætan (Old English: Pēcsǣtan; singular Pēcsǣta, literally "Peak-dweller"), also called Peaklanders or Peakrills in modern English, were an Anglo Saxon tribe who inhabited the central and northern parts of the Peak District area in England. The area was historically the home of the southern clan of the Brigantes, a Brythonic tribe, before the Anglo-Saxon invasion. The very early Derbyshire settlements, in what is now known as the Peak District, were those of the West Angles. This tribe advanced up the valleys of the rivers Derwent and Dove during their northern conquests in the 6th century. They became known locally as the Pecsætan. Later their territory formed the northern division of Mercia, and in 848 the Mercian Witenagemot assembled at Repton.


P0066, 1337

P0632, 1340?

P0529, 1340?

P0612, 1348?

P0130,
1346

P0071, 1358
P0446, 1358

P0273, 1359

P0131, 1375

P0541, 1382

P0038, 1394

P0479, 1399

P0281, 1403

P0267, 1409

P0287, 1410

P0227, 1415
 
 
Mercia (Outer Mercia, South Mercians, North Mercians) (Northhamptonshire, Leichestershire, Staffordshire, Nottinghamshire, West Midlands, Derbyshire):

(Link)
на карте видно, что характерным рельефом этой территории являются предгорья

Appleby Magna P0296    
Ashbourne P0045    
Ashton P0618    
Birmingham P0260    
Bottesford P0289    
Broughton P0275    
Dodford P0616    
Elford P0004 P0172  
Grafton Regis P0576    
Gunby P0488    
Hinton in the Hedges P0455    
Hoveringham P0248    
Kirby Bellars P0680    
Kirklington P0123    
Longford P0265 P0291  
Meriden P0274    
Newton Solney P0216    
Nuthall P0046    
Orlingbury P0259    
Paulerspury P0242    
Spratton P0177    
Warkworth P0114    
Whatton P0280 P0690  
Willoughby on the Wolds P0256    
       

P0690, 1336?

P0616, 1344?

P0455, 1346

P0242, 1346

P0114, 1346

P0275, 1350?

P0618, 1365

P0123, 1368

P0256, 1369

P0172, 1370

P0177, 1371

P0291, 1373

P0216, 1375

P0680, 1380

P0259, 1386

P0280, 1390?

P0260, 1393

P0046, 1390

P0004, 1391

P0296, 1400?

P0576, 1403

P0248, 1403

P0265, 1403

P0274, 1404

P0488, 1405

P0045, 1412

P0289, 1414
 
 
Mercia (Middle Angles) (Oxfordshire, Buckinghamshire, Bedfordshire, Cambridgeshire, Lincolnshire):

(Link)
The Middle Angles were an important ethnic or cultural group within the larger kingdom of Mercia in England in the Anglo-Saxon period.
It is likely that Angles broke into the Midlands from East Anglia and the Wash early in the 6th century. Those who established their control first came to be called Middil Engli (Middle Angles). Their territory was centred in modern Leicestershire and East Staffordshire, but probably extended as far as the Cambridgeshire uplands and the Chilterns. This gave them a strategically important place within both Mercia and England as a whole, dominating both the great land routes of Watling Street and Fosse Way, and the major river route of the River Trent, together with its tributaries, the Tame and Soar.
The Middle Angles were incorporated into the wider kingdom of Mercia, apparently well before the reign of Penda (c.626-655)

Burrough Green P0485    
Chalgrave P0271 P0272  
Chinnor P0562    
Clifton Reynes P0329 P0467  
Dorchester-on-Thames P0217    
Drayton Beauchamp P0308 P0309  
Holbeach P0109    
Horseheath P0302    
Isleham P0523    
Little Shelford P0532    
Rotherfield Greys P0526    
Surfleet P0506    
Uffington P0520    
Waddesdon P0574    
Waterperry P0064    
Westley Waterless P0304    
Wisbech P0494    
       

P0304, 1345?

P0064, 1346

P0574, 1346

P0506, 1347

P0329, 1351

P0109, 1365

P0309, 1368


P0302, 1365


P0308, 1375

P0467, 1385?

P0272, 1386

P0271, 1386

P0217, 1387

P0526, 1387

P0562, 1392?

P0485, 1393?

P0532, 1393

P0520, 1400

P0688, 1400?

P0494, 1401

P0523, 1419
 
 
East Angles (Suffolk, Norfolk):
Bardwell P0693      
Blickling P0578      
Bures P0317      
East Harling P0240      
Elsing P0325      
Erwarton P0319      
Gorleston-on-Sea P0413      
Ingham P0094 P0310 P0473  
Leatheringham P0570      
Playford P0582      
Reepham P0098      
Stoke-by-Nayland P0640      
Wingfield P0277      
         

P0317, 1331

P0413, 1335?

P0325, 1347

P0094, 1344

P0098, 1361

P0310, 1364

P0277, 1361

P0693, 1370?

P0240, 1367

P0473, 1385?

P0570, 1389

P0319, 1392

P0582, 1400

P0578, 1401

P0640, 1408
 
 
Wessex (East Saxons) (Essex, Hertfordshire):
находящийся на границе Drayton Beauchamp не включен в регион, так как относится к другому графству
Albury P0220    
Aveley P0305    
Berkhamsted P0646    
Bowers Gifford P0437    
Dane End P0497    
Earls Colne P0268    
Halstead P0297    
Layer Marney P0266    
Little Horkesley P0558    
Pebmarsh P0410    
St Albans A0017    
Standon P0544    
Watton-at-Stone P0312    
Wimbish P0416    
       

P0410, 1327?

P0437, 1348

P0416, 1347

P0297, 1360?

P0312, 1361
 

P0305, 1370

P0268, 1371

A0017, 1385?

P0646, 1385?

P0558, 1391

P0220, 1395

P0497, 1396

P0266, 1414

P0544, 1412
 
 
Kent:
Ash P0102    
Canterbury P0199    
Cobham P0315 P0316  
Ickham P0401    
Ightham P0041    
Lesnes Abbey P0225    
Minster on Sea P0306    
Otterden P0431    
Sandwich P0228    
Seal P0550    
       

P0306, 1319

P0228, 1350?

P0102, 1350

P0401, 1339

P0225, 1346
 

P0315, 1354

P0316, 1367

P0041, 1374

P0199, 1376

P0550, 1395

P0431, 1408
 
 
Wessex (Dumnonia) (Devon, Cornwall, Somerset):
Bawdrip P0560    
Broadclyst P0125    
Chewton Mendip P0065    
Crediton P0470    
Exeter P0047 A0011  
East Chelborough P0298 P0299  
Farleigh-Hungerford P0286    
Haccombe P0650    
Kingskerswell P0440    
Limington P0073    
Littlehempston P0279    
Norton Hawkfield P0203    
Nunney P0626    
Ottery St. Mary P0238    
Sheviock P0642    
Trent P0509    
Umberleigh P0246    
Widworthy P0630    
       

(Link)
Выделен в отдельный регион, так как соответствует территории бывшего Королевства Думнония. Пределы королевства охватывали территорию современных графств Девон, Корнуолл и часть Сомерсета.
Западную часть территории Думнонии населяли корновии (лат. Cornovii). Считается, что это было не самостоятельное племя, а часть думнониев. К наименованию этого племени восходят западная часть названия полуострова Корнуолл и название корнцев — этнотерриториальной группы, ныне населяющей графство Корнуолл

(Link)
... its eastern boundary changing over time as the gradual westward expansion of the neighbouring Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Wessex encroached on its territory

(Link) на этих картах занимает Девон, весь Сомерсет и часть Эйвона, не занятую королевством Hwicce

(Link) близлежащие королевства Cornwall, Glastening (Somerset) и Dortrig (Dorset) были союзниками Думнонии в борьбе против Wessex

(Link) Glastening (Somerset) прежде был территорией, принадлежавшей Думнонии

(Link) на этой карте Dortrig (Dorset) входит в состав Думнонии

(Link)
the Dumnonian leaders would have exercised a far higher level of self-rule than many areas of Britain. They controlled a wide swathe of territory that also comprised the former territory of the Durotriges and Cornovii, in the modern counties of Dorset and Cornwall respectively.
As well as producing one of the earliest independent kingdoms, Dumnonia was one of the most stable until the West Saxon territorial gains of the late sixth century, neither changing its name or fragmenting in the way of most Celtic kingdoms. It produced a few sub-kingdoms, Glastenning, Cornubia and Lyonesse, which were ruled, in the same manner as Gwynedd, under Dumnonia's overall control, and were mostly later drawn back under direct rule. Glastenning was the only one not regained in whole, but this was due to Saxon conquests in the region.

таким образом, в этот регион, противопоставляемый Wessex, включены все 4 графства (Devon, Cornwall, Glastening (Somerset) и Dortrig (Dorset)) и часть графства Avon


P0073, 1329
P0203, 1346

P0672, 1348

A0011, 1345?

P0238, 1359

P0125, 1360?

P0560, 1375

P0644, 1375

P0642, 1375
?

P0047, 1377

P0246, 1378

P0470, 1387

P0626, 1383

P0509, 1389

P0298, 1388

P0299, 1390

P0065, 1388

P0279, 1390

P0286, 1397

P0630, 1408?

P0650, 1425

P0440, 1428
         
 
Wessex (Wessex) (Wiltshire, Hampshire, Berkshire, Sussex, Surrey, London):
Aldermaston P0425        
Aldworth P0226 P0321 P0422 P0666  
Alvediston P0290        
Binsted P0692        
Chichester P0063        
Clyffe Pypard P0661        
Horley P0263        
Horsham P0221        
Ifield P0092        
Imber P0270        
Lingfield P0044 P0336      
London P0054 P0233      
Salisbury P0122        
Stoke d'Abernon P0301        
Tollard Royal P0636        
           

P0270, 1329

P0692, 1332

P0054, 1336

P0321, 1336?

P0263, 1343

P0092, 1343

P0666, 1345

P0226, 1345

P0422, 1345?

P0636, 1350?

P0301, 1350

P0425, 1353

P0044, 1361

P0063, 1376

P0661, 1380?

P0122, 1389

P0233, 1395

P0221, 1395

P0336, 1403

P0290, 1418
 
 
Wales:
North Wales:  
Betws-y-coed P0223  
Dolgellau P0634  
Farndon P0331  
Gresford P0464  
Llanfaes P0202  
Llanfair Caereinion P0678  
Llanrwst P0552  
Llantysilio P0224  
Llanuwchllyn P0443  
Northop P0419  
     
Marches:    
Abergavenny P0078 P0224  
Carew Cheriton P0547    
Carmarthen P0620    
Cheriton P0535    
Manorbier P0648    
St Athan P0020 P0434  
St Davids P0458 P0461  
Upton P0572    
       

P0648, 1324

P0547, 1324?

P0224, 1325

P0464, 1331

P0331, 1342

P0634, 1347
 

P0535, 1350?

P0620, 1350?
 

P0434, 1327

P0020, 1351
 

P0078, 1348

P0244, 1347
 

P0223, 1365

P0419, 1370?

P0678, 1375?

P0443, 1379?

P0552, 1388
 

P0572,
1362

P0458, 1370?

P0461, 1370?

P0202, 1382

P0659, 1409
 

(Link)
всю территорию Уэльса можно разделить на независимый Уэльс (Pura Wallia) и приграничный Уэльс (Welsh Marches, Marchia Wallie - lands ruled by the Marcher barons), неточно определенная область вдоль и вокруг границы между Англией и Уэльсом

Hundreds of small castles were built in the border area in the 12th and 13th centuries, predominantly by Norman lords
The Marcher lords encouraged immigration from all the Norman-Angevin realms
Peasants came to Wales in large numbers: Henry I encouraged Bretons, Flemings, Normans, and English settlers to move into the south of Wales
The Norman lords each had similar rights to the Welsh princes

независимое положение Earldom of Chester (county palatinate) и культурной близостью к Уэльсу объясняется тем, что до 602 года эта область входила в состав владений Gwynedd
(Link)
In a rare show of common interest it appears Gwynedd and neighbouring Powys acted in concert to rebuff the Anglican advance but were defeated at the Battle of Chester in 613. Following this catastrophe the approximate borders of northern Wales were set with the city of Caerlleon (now called Chester) and the surrounding Cheshire Plain falling under the control of the Anglo-Saxons
In early times Gwynedd (or Venedotia) may have been ruled from Chester. After the Battle of Chester in 613 when the city fell to the Anglo-Saxons

(Link)
The strategic location of the Earldom of Chester; the only county palatine on the Welsh Marches
Because of the historically close links with the land bordering Cheshire to the west, which became modern Wales, there is a history of interaction between Cheshire and North Wales

(Link)
The native inhabitants of medieval Wales were descended from the Celtic Britons, whom the Anglo-Saxons had driven out of the island's fertile midlands (the term "Welsh" was the Anglo-Saxon word for "foreigner"). In the 8th century the Anglo-Saxons established the traditional Anglo-Welsh border by erecting King Offa's Dyke, an earthwork barrier running from the coast near to Prestatyn in the north to the Bristol Channel in the south. While Offa's Dyke marked the end of Anglo-Saxon annexation of Welsh territory, the status quo was shattered in the 11th century by the arrival of the Normans, who conquered a border zone in Wales known as the Marches (from a French word meaning "frontier"). Norman warlords known as Marcher lords oversaw the conquered lands and prevented incursions by outsiders. Over time, a hybrid society developed in this frontier area as Welsh, Anglo-Saxon and Norman peoples and cultures mixed together. Until Edward's invasion in 1277, the country remained divided between Marcher Wales and native Wales.

очень близок к уэльским костюмам P0331, 1342 (Farndon, Cheshire)
это объясняется пограничным расположением этой деревни
(Link)
It is located on the banks of the River Dee, south of Chester, and close to the border with Wales
Up to the 14th century, Farndon also included the chapelry of Holt in Denbighshire, Wales
Farndon is very close to the border between England and Wales (the actual border is on the bridge which crosses the river Dee and which separates Farndon and the village of Holt.) Consequently, Farndon has a Welsh name: Rhedynfre. The village was an important place historically and has been a site of conflict and cultural exchange since the Angles settled the area in the 8th century. The border moved numerous times during the following centuries, placing Farndon alternately in Wales and England.

поэтому этот памятник можно отнести к региону Уэльс

 
 
 
 
Вверх страницы
 
Яндекс.Метрика